Doubt & Skepticism:
A Directed Minimal Bibliography & Web Guide

Compiled by Ralph Dumain

“If the Sun & Moon should Doubt
Theyd immediately Go out”

— William Blake, “Auguries of Innocence

Se sunon, lunon dub’ opresus,
lumadi ili tuj ekĉesus.

— William Blake, El “Aŭguroj pri Senkulpeco”, trad. William Auld

Philosophical Skepticism

Forster, Michael N. Hegel and Skepticism. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1989.

Hecht, Jennifer Michael. Doubt: A History: The Great Doubters and Their Legacy of Innovation, from Socrates and Jesus to Thomas Jefferson and Emily Dickinson. New York: Harper San Francisco, 2003.

Horkheimer, Max. “Montaigne and the Function of Skepticism,” in Between Philosophy and Social Science: Selected Early Writings, translated by G. Frederick Hunter, Matthew S. Kramer and John Torpey (Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1993), pp. 265-311. Original publication: “Montaigne und die Funktion der Skepsis,” Zeitschrift für Sozialforschung 7, no. 1 (1938).

Frankfurt School, 1938: Max Horkheimer on Montaigne by Bruce Miller, Old Hickory's Weblog, 29 January 2011.

Young Horkheimer: Critical Theory Before the Dialectic of Enlightenment, And After It by Matthew Sharpe (2007).

Michel de Montaigne by Marc Foglia, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

Popkin, Richard H. The High Road to Pyrrhonism, edited by Richard A. Watson & James E. Force. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing. Co., 1993. (Originally published 1980.)

______________. The History of Scepticism: From Savonarola to Bayle. Rev. and expanded ed. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2003. Most recent edition.

Book available online for subscribers at Questia Online Library
Table of contents
Publisher’s description
Note: the extract below appears in the Introduction to the latest edition.

Popkin, Richard H. The History of Scepticism from Erasmus to Descartes, revised edition (New York: Harper & Row, 1968 [based on 1964 ed.; orig. pub. 1960]), pp. XIII-XVI [extract from preface on scepticism & fideism].

______________. “Hume's Racism Reconsidered,” in The Third Force in Seventeenth-Century Thought (Leiden; New York: E.J. Brill, 1992), pp. 64-75.

Popkin, Richard H.; Stroll, Avrum. Skeptical Philosophy for Everyone. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 2002.

Saltus, Edgar. The Anatomy of Negation. Rev. ed. London: Brentano's, 1889. (First ed., 1886.)

Other copies of the 1886 edition are downloadable from Google books, including this one. Plain text file downloadable from Ebooks.

See also my blog: Edgar Saltus: The Anatomy of Negation (1).

Skepticism: An Anthology, edited by Richard H. Popkin & José R. Maia Neto. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 2007. Contents.

Scientific Skepticism & the Skeptical Movement

Barker, Dan. Maybe Yes, Maybe No: A Guide For Young Skeptics; illustrated by Brian Strassburg. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1990.

The Encyclopedia of the Paranormal, edited by Gordon Stein. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 1996.

Kurtz, Paul. The New Skepticism : Inquiry and Reliable Knowledge. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1992.

A Skeptic’s Handbook of Parapsychology, edited by Paul Kurtz. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1985.

On This Site

Philosophy of Skepticism:

Scepticism & Fideism by Richard H. Popkin

The Main Principles of David Hume's Epistemology as a Source of Contemporary Positivism” by Elena Panova

Doubt and Atheism” by Evlogi Dankov, re-translated by R. Dumain

Critique of Critical Thinking (2): Critical Thinking vs. 'Skepticism' by R. Dumain

Skepticism in Soviet Philosophical Dictionaries


Letter to Simon Foucher (1675) by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz

Putting Descartes Before the Horse” by Dave Berg

Descartes' Dualism (Extract) by Albert William Levi

C.L.R. James on Descartes & the Division of Labor

Descartes & Marxism: Selected Bibliography


Voltaire’s philosophical tales: commentary by R. Dumain


Marx on Kant

Kant’s “Critique of Pure Reason” by Theodor W. Adorno

T.W. Adorno on Kant, the Division of Labor & Restriction of Reason
Lecture 7 (11 June 1959): Knowledge as Tautology
Lecture 16 (14 July 1959): Society ‘Block’

Marx & Engels:

Marx & Engels on Skepticism & Praxis

Marx on Kant

Bibliographies & Study Guides:

Indian Materialism & Skepticism

Descartes & Marxism: Selected Bibliography

Bertrand Russell vs William James & the Will to Believe

Martin Gardner, Mathematical Games, & the Fourth Dimension

Thinking Critically About Critical Thinking: A Guide

The Paranoia Papers: Theory of the (Un)Natural History of Social Paranoia: Selected Bibliography

Historical Surveys of Atheism, Freethought, Rationalism, Skepticism, and Materialism: Selected Works

Secular Humanism—Ideology, Philosophy, Politics, History: Bibliography in Progress

Atheism / Freethought / Humanism / Rationalism / Skepticism / Unbelief / Secularism / Church-State Separation Web Links

Reflexivity & Situatedness Study Guide (with side orders of slumming & liberal guilt)

Irony, Humor, & Cynicism Study Guide

Ideology Study Guide

Washington Philosophy Circle: Links to Other Sites

En Esperanto (v. ankaŭ alireteje):

Cogito Ergo Sum de René Descartes, tradukis Albert Goodheir

Antaŭparolo de Eugène de Zilah al Diskurso pri la Metodo de Kartezio (René Descartes)

El “Aŭguroj pri Senkulpeco” [from “Auguries of Innocence”], traduko de William Auld

Bertrand Russell  de K. R. C. Sturmer

Dubo kaj Ateismo” de Evlogi Dankov

En angla traduko de R. Dumain: "Doubt and Atheism"

Postkomentaro al Dankov” de R. Dumain

Recenzo Nefinverkita: Evaldo Pauli, Pri Dubo kaj Certeco

Pri Dubo kaj Certeco: Enhavtabelo & Prefaco de Evlogi Dankov

ATEO: Bazaj Informoj & Enhavtabeloj de Ateismo


Skepticism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

philosophical skepticism
(The Skeptic's Dictionary)

Skepticism (Skeptikoi: The Free Online Encyclopedia: TheFreeDictionary)

Skepticism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Ancient Greek Skepticism - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Ancient Skepticism - Stanford Encyclopedia

Medieval Skepticism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Contemporary Skepticism - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Skeptical Theism - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Skepticism in Modern Thought
(Dictionary of the History of Ideas)
Richard H. Popkin

Hume's Racism Reconsidered” by Richard H. Popkin

Richard Popkin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Richard Popkin: A philosopher grappling with notions of God and scepticism (Obit)
Sarah Hutton
The Guardian, 7 May 2005

Review of Skeptical Philosophy for Everyone, Richard H. Popkin & Avrum Stroll
Ron Barnette

Edward Jayne's Homepage: Skepticism

The Necessity of Skepticism

Systematic Disbelief: An Inconoclastic Compulsion

Skepticism and the Eurocentric Tradition

Scientific skepticism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Robert K. Merton - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Martin Gardner - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Reason & Society: Martin Gardner (R. Dumain)

Reason & Society: skepticism (R. Dumain)

The Skeptical Canon by Austin Dacey, July 26, 2011 (CSI)

The Skeptic's Dictionary

The Skeptics Society and Skeptic Magazine

Skeptical Inquirer magazine
(Publication of Center for Free Inquiry, The Committee for Skeptical Inquiry, with origins in CSICOP)

Skeptic Ring


Metodologia Dubo - Vikipedio

Kial Mi Ne Estas Kristano de Bertrand Russell (Esperanto translation)

La Problemoj de la Filozofio (ĉapitroj 1 & 2) de Bertrand Russell (Esperanto translation)

Note: In the intellectual sphere, there are two distinct and antithetical senses of the term “skepticism”, which may be designated by the terms “philosophical skepticism” and “scientific skepticism”, both of which contrast with popular usage. See my Critique of Critical Thinking (2): Critical Thinking vs. 'Skepticism' regarding problems with the concept and terminology.

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Uploaded 20 July 2011
Last update 14 December 2021
Previous update 1 December 2021

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