Ars Combinatoria Study Guide

Compiled by Ralph Dumain

Note: This web page collects a variety of writings with some philosophical relevance to the possibilities and limitations of a combinatoric approach to novelty, creativity, intelligence, et. sim. The most important complementary sources I have compiled are to be found below. There is some but far from total overlap with the following most comprehensive other of my bibliographies:

Philosophical and Universal Languages, 1600-1800, and Related Themes: Selected Bibliography

See also my offsite blog in English and Esperanto:

Ars Combinatoria @ Ĝirafo

Search terms:

ars combinatoria
ars memoriae
art of memory
arte combinatoria
characteristica universalis
mathesis universalis
Ramon Llull
universal characteristic

Einstein - combinatory play

On this site

Ramón Llull

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz

Jorge Luis Borges

Henri Lefebvre


Bibliographies & web guides

On other sites

On my blogs (selected)


Supplementary Bibliography

Bamford, Alice. Chalk and the Architrave: Mathematics and Modern Literature. PhD dissertation, King’s College, University of Cambridge, 2015.

____________. “Intaglio as Philosophy,” New Left Review, January/ February 2018, pp. 141-148. [Bachelard, Flaubert & combinatorics, Historical epistemology]

____________. “Mathematics and Modern Literature: Passages from ‘Chalk and the Architrave’,” New Left Review 124, July/August 2020.

Borges, Jorge Luis. “For Bernard Shaw” / “A Note on (toward) Bernard Shaw”; in Other Inquisitions, 1937-1952, translated by Ruth L. C. Simms, introduction by James E. Irby (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1964), pp. 163-166.

Casanova, Pascale. Samuel Beckett: Anatomy of a Literary Revolution, translated by Gregory Elliott. London; New York:Verso, 2006.

Introduction by Terry Eagleton
Preface: Ill Seen Ill Read
1 Ars Combinatoria
2 Youth and Genesis
3 Philosophical Motifs
4 The Invention of Abstract Literature
Conclusion: Among the Deepening Shades

Pascale Casanova: Beckett’s combinatorial art

Samuel Beckett: Anatomy of a Literary Revolution

"Worstward Ho, assembling all earlier efforts, is a mechanism of ars combinatoria in the mathematical sense, since it attempts, on the basis of the minimum number of elements (the least also being the basis of its definition of the bad), all the operations and combinations that can syntactically be realized." [p. 18]

"Yet Beckett accomplished a revolution in literature that was as radical as Kandinsky’s, or even, of a different nature, Duchamp's in art. His project of a genuinely autonomous literature, freed from the imperatives of representation and respecting only the principle of a combinatory of elements that has broken virtually any link with reality (or the conventions thought to represent reality), and the elaboration of a novel literary syntax, are on a par with the great aesthetic ruptures of the twentieth century. But his invention of literary abstraction has never truly been acknowledged. No doubt that is why he has remained without descendants: the quietus he delivered to literary realism literally went unnoticed. As a writer, he has not really acceded to existence because he has not been perceived: non esse est non percipi, as he would have said." [ pp. 105-106]

Cramer, Florian. Words Made Flesh: Code, Culture, Imagination. Rotterdam: Piet Zwart Institute, 2005.

DIA-LOGOS: Ramon Llull’s Method of Thought and Artistic Practice, edited by Amador Vega, Peter Weibel, and Siegfried Zielinski. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2018.

Duncan, Dennis. Oulipo and Modern Thought. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2019.

Elkin, Lauren; Esposito, Scott. The End of Oulipo? An Attempt at Exhausting a Movement. Winchester, UK: Zero Books, 2013.

An Attempt at Exhausting a Movement, by Lauren Elkin and Scott Esposito, The New Inquiry, January 17, 2013.

Rats Build Their Labyrinth: Oulipo in the 21st Century, by Michael Leong, Hyperallergic, May 17, 2015.

Fidora, Alexander; Sierra, Carles; eds. Ramon Llull: From the Ars Magna to Artificial Intelligence. Barcelona: Artificial Intelligence Research Institute, IIIA - Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas 2011. Contents.

Koetsier, Teun. The Ascent of GIM, the Global Intelligent Machine: A History of Production and Information Machines. Cham: Springer International Publishing, Springer, 2019.

Oulipo: A Primer of Potential Literature, translated and edited by Warren F. Motte, Jr. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1986.

Rubio, Joseph E. ‘Llull’s “Great Universal Art”,’ in A Companion to Ramon Llull and Lullism, edited by Amy M. Austin, Mark D. Johnston; translated by Amy M. Austin, Alexander Ibarz, Mark D. Johnston (Leiden; Boston: Brill, 2019), pp. 81-116.

Vallverdú, Jordi. "Brains, Language and the Argumentative Mind in Western and Eastern Societies. The Fertile Differences Between Western-Eastern Argumentative Traditions," Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology, Volume 131, December 2017, pp. 424-431. Preprint.

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Uploaded 2 October 2019
Einsstein image added 6 April 2021
Last update 8 May 2022
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