Ramon Llull & His Influence: Select Bibliography & Web Guide

Compiled by Ralph Dumain

A Companion to Ramon Llull and Lullism, edited by Amy M. Austin, Mark D. Johnston; translated by Amy M. Austin, Alexander Ibarz, Mark D. Johnston. Leiden; Boston: Brill, 2019. DOI: 10.1163/9789004379671.


See esp. Joseph E. Rubio, Chapter 4: ‘Llull’s “Great Universal Art”,’ pp. 81-116.

Badia, Lola; Santanach, Joan; Soler, Albert. Ramon Llull as a Vernacular Writer: Communicating a New Kind of Knowledge. Woodbridge: Tamesis, 2016.

Bonner, Anthony. The Art and Logic of Ramon Llull: A User’s Guide. Leiden; Boston : Brill, 2007. (Studien und Texte zur Geistesgeschichte des Mittelalters; Bd. 95) Note Appendix [1]: “The Martin Gardner Problem.”

Borges, Jorge Luis. “Ramón Llull’s Thinking Machine” (1937), in Selected Non-Fictions, edited by Eliot Weinberger; translated by Esther Allen, Suzanne Jill Levine, and Eliot Weinberger (New York: Viking, 1999), pp. 155-159.

Borges assesses Llull’s thinking machine (composed of movable disks enabling myriad combinations of elementary ideas) useless, an absurdity for philosophical purposes but perhaps useful as a literary device. Borges adduces two diagrams, the first a diagram of divine attributes, the second, of Llull’s thinking machine. It unworkability is illustrated by Borges using one of his favorite symbols, a tiger. The device is ridiculed in Swift’s Gulliver's Travels. Of the first diagram, Borges suggests that the theological subject matter would not be rewarding today.

We now know that the concepts of goodness, greatness, wisdom, power, and glory are incapable of engendering an appreciable revelation. We (who are basically no less naive than Llull) would load the machine differently, no doubt with the words Entropy, Time, Electrons, Potential Energy, Fourth Dimension, Relativity, Protons, Einstein. Or with Surplus Value, Proletariat, Capitalism, Class Struggle, Dialectical Materialism, Engels. [157]

Bruno, Giordano. Four Works on Llull: On the Compendious Architecture and Complementary Arts of Ramon Llull, Lullian Combinatoric Lamps, Scrutinizing the Subjects, Animadversions; translation and introduction by Scott Gosnell. [USA:] Huginn, Munnin & Co., 2015. (Collected Works of Giordano Bruno; 3)

Cramer, Florian. “Deus Ex Machina: Eschatologies of Automation in Seventeenth-Century Lullism and Present-day Post-Scarcity Utopias,” in DIA-LOGOS: Ramon Llull’s Method of Thought and Artistic Practice, edited by Amador Vega, Peter Weibel, and Siegfried Zielinski (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2018), pp. 82-94.

Cramer, Florian. Words Made Flesh: Code, Culture, Imagination. Rotterdam: Piet Zwart Institute, 2005. See chapter 2.

DIA-LOGOS: Ramon Llullís Method of Thought and Artistic Practice, edited by Amador Vega, Peter Weibel, and Siegfried Zielinski. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2018.

DIA-LOGOS | ZKM: “DIA-LOGOS. Ramon Llull and the ars combinatoria”: Exhibition, March 17 - July 1, 2018. Exhibition catalog (see above).

Llullian Rotations: Variations on Ramon Lllullís Ars Combinatoria. Panel session with Miquel Bassols, Concha RoldŠn, Perejaume, and Amador Vega on the occasion of the presentation of the book Ramon Llullís Method of Thought and Artistic Practice, CCCB, 2 December 2019, in Spanish, Catalan.

Duncan, Dennis. Oulipo and Modern Thought. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2019.

Fidora, Alexander; Sierra, Carles; eds. Ramon Llull: From the Ars Magna to Artificial Intelligence. Barcelona: Artificial Intelligence Research Institute, IIIA - Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas 2011. Contents.

Gardner, Martin. Logic Machines and Diagrams. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1958. (2nd. ed., University of Chicago Press, 1982.) See esp. chapter on Raymond Lull.

González-Casanovas, Roberto J. The Apostolic Hero and Community in Ramon Llullís Blanquerna: A Literary Study of a Medieval Utopia (with a Critical Bibliography). New York: Peter Lang, 1995.

Hillgarth, J. N. Ramon Lull and Lullism in Fourteenth-Century France. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1971.

Johnston, Mark D. The Evangelical Rhetoric of Ramon Llull: Lay Learning and Piety in the Christian West around 1300. New York; Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.

Johnston, Mark D. The Spiritual Logic of Ramon Llull. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Clarendon Press; New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.

Koetsier, Teun. The Ascent of GIM, the Global Intelligent Machine: A History of Production and Information Machines. Cham: Springer International Publishing, Springer, 2019. See chapter 6.

Llull, Ramon. The Book of the Order of Chivalry = Libre de líOrdre de Cavalleria = Libro de la Orden de Caballeria; introduction and translation into English and Spanish by Antonio Cortijo Ocaña. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2015.

Llull, Ramón. Doctor Illuminatus: A Ramón Llull Reader, edited and translated by Anthony Bonner, with a new translation of The Book of the Lover and the Beloved by Eve Bonner (see excerpt). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1993. (Mythos) Abridged version of Selected Works of Ramón Llull. Publisher description.

A Mind for the Ages: Ramon Llull, Doctor Illuminatus” symposium, New York University, Catalan Center, March 6-7, 2008. See also flyer.

Llull, Ramón. Selected Works of Ramón Llull (1232-1316), edited and translated by Anthony Bonner. 2 vols. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1985.

Peers, E. Allison. Ramon Lull: A Biography. New York: B. Franklin, 1969. (Reprint of the 1929 ed.) (Selected Essays in History, Economic & Social Science; no. 84. Burt Franklin Bibliography & Reference Series; no 266)

Vega, Amador. Ramon Llull and the Secret of Life, translated by James W. Heisig. New York: The Crossroad Publishing Company, 2003.

Yates, Frances A. The Art of Memory. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2001. (Latest ed. First published: London: Routledge & K. Paul, 1966.) See esp. chapters VIII: Lullism as an Art of Memory; XVII. The Art of Memory and the Growth of Scientific Method.

Yates, Frances A. Lull and Bruno. London; New York: Routledge, 1999. [reprint of 1982 ed.]

On this site:

Bibliographies & web guides:

On other sites:

NOTE: This bibliography encompasses only a fraction of Llull’s work, emphasizing his Ars Magna (ars combinatoria) and its enduring influence and interest. Llull is mentioned in most if not all of the works on ars combinatoria and on the history of philosophical languages, and on Leibniz’s work on combinatorics, so consult those bibliographies as well, and in works on combinatorics in literature, and in some histories of logic and artificial intelligence.

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Uploaded 29 September 2020
Last update 14 December 2021
Previous update 17 November 2021

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