Note: Čapek’s play R.U.R. which introduced the word ‘robot’ (attributed by Karel to his brother Josef) to the world, was published in 1920 and officially premiered on January 25, 1921. It was also arguably the first technological dystopia to appear after the conclusion of World War I, and a historic turning point in the perspective on the automaton in popular culture. Čapek followed up with socially critical novels based on science fiction premises, and returned to his original theme in his 1936 novel War with the Newts, this time substituting intelligent salamanders for robots. Even without the device of the robot, the issue of machines becoming more human-like and humans becoming more mechanical was a key theme of the 19th century as the industrial revolution peaked, and while technology has itself evolved in the past century, the issues as Čapek presented them are as fresh as ever. This bibliography is one step in my efforts to promote a centenary celebration of this landmark play. Indented paragraphs are quotations. More can be found on my bibliographical guide to Karel Čapek. RD
THEAITRE | Can a robot write a theatre play? [LIVESTREAM 26 February 2021]
AI: WHEN A ROBOT WRITES A PLAY • on-line premiere [full performance & discussion available on YouTube through 1 March 2021]
Theaitre Facebook page
AI: When a Robot Writes a Play, plus the best of February’s online theatre & comedy by Dominic Cavendish, The Telegraph, 27 February 2021
Prague theatre to stage play written by artificial intelligence, on 100th anniversary of Čapek’s R.U.R. by Ruth Fraňková & Michaela Vetešková, Radio Prague International (with sound file), 24 February 2021
Robotic rebellion? One hundred years of love and hate for automatons, Explica, April 6, 2021
Gary K. Wolfe Reviews Machinehood by S.B. Divya, Locus, March 23, 2021
In Kazuo Ishiguro’s ‘Klara and the Sun,’ a robot tries to make sense of humanity by Ron Charles, The Washington Post (Book World), March 2, 2021. Republished in Borneo Bulletin, March 19, 2021 and The Spokesman Review, March 6, 2021.
Can artificial intelligence algorithms alone write a play? by Sophie Thomas, London Theatre, 17 February, 2021
100 years after the word was first used in a Czech play, a 'robot' will actually try to write one by Tom Lane, Expats.cz, 4 Jan. 2021
Celebrating 100 years of the ‘robot’: a new version of R.U.R. by 3Ai, 3A Institute, Blog by Ellen Broad, Charlotte Bradley and Genevieve Bell, January 20, 2021
Jaroslav Veis Guest Post–“Robot, the Most Famous Czech, Celebrates 100 Years”, Locus, February 2, 2021
Robots aren’t about to wipe out humans — well, maybe just their jobs by Gwynne Dyer, The Hamilton Spectator, Jan. 28, 2021. Republished as:
Are we ready for the first real automatons?,
Bangkok Post, 30 January 2021
How automation will soon impact us all, The Jerusalem Post, 30 January 2021
Perspective: Happy Birthday, Robot!, David Gunkel's Perspective, Northern Public Radio, January 29, 2021
Robots got their name 100 years ago today by By David Szondy, New Atlas, January 25, 2021
On 100th Anniversary of 'Robot,' They're Finally Taking Over by Christopher Mims, Bangkok Post, January 25, 2021
The robot century by Simon Chesterman, The Straits Times, January 25, 2021
Czechia 2020-2021 — Global AI Narratives: Central and Eastern Europe
2. From Čapek to Lem: AI in Eastern European Science Fiction (15 January 2021)
The Word “Robot” Appeared in a Czech Play 100 Years Ago Today, Prague Morning, January 2, 2021
It [the word] was first used to mean an artificial humanoid in the stage play R.U.R. written in 1920 by Karel Čapek, which premiered on January 2, 1921, by the Unity of Klicper Theater Amateurs in Hradec Králové, and the official premiere was at the National Theater in Prague on January 25, 1921.
100 years later, the dystopian origin of the word ‘robot’ still rings true by John M. Jordan, Quartz, January 23, 2021
Robots were dreamt up 100 years ago – why haven’t our fears about them changed since? by Michael Szollosy, The Conversation, January 22, 2021. Also at Madras Courier, January 25, 2021.
100 Years of Robots by Christopher Mims & Michael Bucher, The Wall Street Journal, January 22, 2021
“R.U.R” foreshadowed fears about artificial intelligence by B. T., The Economist, Jan. 22, 2021
Robots Turn 100—and Still Enthrall Us by Adam Kirsch, The Wall Street Journal, Jan. 16, 2021
We, Robot, The Indian Express, January 14, 2021
One hundred years since a hellish vision of technology spawned that fateful word: robot by Simon Lowe, The Guardian, January 10, 2021
Robot Wars: 100 years later, it’s time for Karel Čapek’s RUR to restart by Roberto Silman, Brinkwire, January 8, 2021
Robot wars: 100 years on, it's time to reboot Karel Čapek's RUR by Michael Billington, The Guardian, 7 January 2021
And Yet….I Have Never Read It! by Doctor Curmudgeon, January 26, 2021
Karel Čapek’s ‘robots’ at 100 – new exhibition highlights foreign productions of R.U.R., by Brian Kenety & Václav Müller, Radio Prague International, 09/29/2020 [with audio file]
Čapek and Robots at the Brno Technical Museum by Ines Ribas, BRNO Daily, December 9, 2020
THEAITRE | Can a robot write a theatre play?
Broadway Bots? Robots Are Writing a Play to Celebrate The 100th Anniversary of the Word Robot by Jacob Oller, SyfyWire, Aug. 4, 2020
THEaiTRE: A theatre play written entirely by machines by Ingrid Fadelli , Tech Xplore, August 3, 2020
Celebrating 100 years of the ‘robot’: a new version of R.U.R. by 3Ai, 3A Institute, Blog by Ellen Broad, Charlotte Bradley and Genevieve Bell, March 6, 2020
Robots Really Don’t Explain It All for Us—But They Helpfully Try, Mind Matters News, December 13, 2020
Machines That Can Deny Their Maker (1997) by Rosalind W. Picard
Karel Čapek’s ‘The White Disease’: a pandemic of fascism [The Czech Books You Must Read (20)] by Brian Kenety, Radio Prague International, 12/09/2020, with audio & videos. Film:
Bílá nemoc (The White Disease) | celý film | česká filmová klasika (1937).
Still Stuck at Home in Confinement? Watch this Prophetic Czech Film Based on Karel Čapek’s Play by Temir Asanov, Prague Morning, May 20, 2020
Arts Commentary: Pestilence on Stage, Part One — Karel Čapek’s “The White Plague” by Bill Marx, The Arts Fuse, April 1, 2020
A 100 Year Anniversary by Daniel Allen, DirectIndustry e-Magazine, August
The Word Robot Invented 100 Years Ago, by Sue Gee, i-programmer.info, 26 January 2020
In fact, Asimov’s [author of I, Robot] “Laws of Robotics” (which are discussed here) are explicitly designed to prevent the kind of situation depicted in R.U.R. as they impose a total inhibition against harming human beings or disobeying them.
‘Robot’ was coined 100 years ago, in a play predicting human extinction by android hands by Brian Heater, Tech Crunch, February 27, 2020
How the human race succumbed: two dystopias by Čapek by Laszlo Solymar, The Article, March 28, 2020
The virtues of travel writing and the work of Karel Čapek by Alan Riach, The National [Scotland] 7 September 2020
Karel Čapek: Novelist, playwright – and travel writer, with Mirna Šolić, Radio Prague International (with sound file), 02/06/2020. See also book.
130th anniversary of birth of great interwar writer Karel Čapek by Ian Willoughby (with voice quotes from Ivan Klíma & Zdeněk Vacek, Radio Prague International (with sound file), 01/09/2020
War with the Newts: Karel Čapek’s prescient, dystopian magnum opus by Brian Kenety (with voice quotes from Robert Weschler), Radio Prague International (with sound file), 04/01/2020
Gary K. Wolfe Reviews Made to Order: Robots and Revolution, Edited by Jonathan Strahan, Locus, May 1, 2020 [Made to Order: Robots and Revolution, Jonathan Strahan, ed. (Solaris 978-1781087879, $11.99, 400pp, tp) March 2020.]
Anthologies about robots may be nearly as important in SF history as individual novels and stories, from one of the earliest, Groff Conklin’s 1954 Science-Fiction Thinking Machines (which included Capek’s play, probably presented for the first time in the context of genre SF) to the more recent and playful (such as Dominik Parisien & Navah Wolfes Robots vs. Fairies a year or so ago).
Slavery, the “robot,” and Orientalism in science fiction by Ibrahim Al Marashi, TRT World, 26 June 2020
The Short, Strange Life of the First Friendly Robot by Yulia Frumer, IEEE Spectrum, 21 May 2020
The Guardian's 'scary' new robot author didn't know the word 'robot' originates from Czech by Jason Pirodsky, Expats.cz, 9/9/20
From manufacturing to something better. Industry 4.0 could redefine Slovakia, by Peter Dlhopolec, The Slovak Spectator, 26 June 2020
Is the future of robots in good hands? by Chris Middleton, Diginomica, January 21, 2020
The future is sci-fi: On Philip K Dick’s Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep, AI and artificial empathy by Prahlad Srihari, Firstpost, January 06, 2020
The Birth of the Modern Robot by Sharon Lin, Hackaday, December 19, 2019
Robots of Ages Past by Robert W. Lebling, AramcoWorld, November/December 2019
Čapek's seminal play, R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots) [World's first sci fi TY program], Europa SF 2019: The European Speculative Fiction Portal
R.U.R. - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
R.U.R. (Rossums Universal Robots), translated by David Wyllie
R.U.R. (Rossums Universal Robots) (2014-09-16), Librivox: sound recording
RUR (Rossum's Universal Robots), Jerzs Literacy Weblog
Mutual Inspirations Festival 2015 - Karel Čapek (Embassy of the Czech Republic, Washington, DC)
Sci Fi Bytes: And the First Sci Fi TV Series Was . . . by johnnyjay, Cancelled Sci Fi, August 26, 2020 [Karel Čapeks R.U.R.]
Save the Robots
RUR - A Retro-Futuristic Cabaret Musical (4:54)
RUR Embassy: Selected Excerpts from Reading of R.U.R. Robots vs Man as a Retro-Futuristic Musical based on Karel Capeks play at the Czech Embassy September 2015 by The Alliance for New Music-Theatre [24:19]
Bílá nemoc (The White Disease) | celý film | česká filmová klasika (1937), in Czech with English subtitles (1 hr., 44 min.).
Loss Of Sensation (1935), film, in Russian with English subtitles (1 hr., 26 min.).
Der Herr Der Welt (Master of the World) (1934) [this clip 4 min., 25 sec.], German film (90 min.).
Master of the World (1934 film) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Asimov, Isaac. “The Vocabulary of SF” [Asimov's Editorials], Isaac Asimov’s Science Fiction Magazine, September 1979; reprinted as “The Vocabulary of Science Fiction,” in Asimov on Science Fiction (Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Company, 1981).
Čapek’s play is, in my own opinion, a terribly bad one, but it is immortal for that one word. It contributed the word ‘robot’ not only to English but, through English, to all the languages in which science fiction is now written.
Barzilai, Maya. Golem: Modern Wars and Their Monsters. New York: New York University Press, 2016.
Čapek, Karel. The Author of the Robots Defends Himself, Science Fiction Studies, #68 (Volume 23, Part 1), March 1996.
Čapek, Karel; Čupová, Kateřina. R. U. R. Argo Publishers, 2020. Graphic novel adaptation, in Czech.
Cave, Stephen, Dihal, Kanta; Dillon, Sarah; eds. AI Narratives: A History of Imaginative Thinking about Intelligent Machines. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2020. DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198846666.001.0001
Part I Antiquity to Modernity
1 Homer's Intelligent Machines
2 Demons and Devices
3 The Android of Albertus Magnus
4 Artificial Slaves in the Renaissance and the Dangers of Independent Innovation
5 Making the Automaton Speak
6 Victorian Fictions of Computational Creativity
7 Machines Like Us? Modernism and the Question of the Robot
Part II Modern and Contemporary
8 Enslaved Minds
9 Machine Visions
10 'A Push-Button Type of Thinking'
11 Artificial Intelligence and the Parent-Child Narrative
12 AI and Cyberpunk Networks
13 AI: Artificial Immortality and Narratives of Mind Uploading
14 Artificial Intelligence and the Sovereign-Governance Game
15 The Measure of a Woman
16 The Fall and Rise of AI
Christopher, David. Stalin’s “Loss of Sensation”: Subversive Impulses in Soviet Science-Fiction of the Great Terror, MOSF Journal of Science Fiction, Volume 1, Issue 2, May 2016, pp. 18-35.
Loss Of Sensation (1935), film, in Russian with English subtitles (1 hr, 26 min.).
Demson, Michael; Clason, Christopher R.; eds. Romantic Automata: Exhibitions, Figures, Organisms. Lewisburg, PA: Bucknell University Press, 2020.
List of Illustrations
Notes on Contributors and Co-editors
Michael Demson and Christopher R. Clason
Section I: Exhibitions
1. The Uncanny Valley: E. T. A. Hoffmann, Sigmund Freud, Masahiro Mori
2. The (Re-)Winding of Hoffmann’s Automata: from Offenbach’s 1881 Opera to Powell and Pressburger’s 1951 Film
3. Wounded Bodies in the Lithographs of Théodore Géricault, 1818-1820
Section II: Figures
4. Romantic Tales of Pseudo Automata: The Chess-Playing Turk in Hoffmann, Poe, and Benjamin
5. On Toys, Violence, and Automated Gender
6. Automatic for All: Mary Shelley’s Posthuman Passion
7. “A little earthly idol to contract your ideas”: Global Hermeneutics in Phebe Gibbes’s Zoriada, or, Village Annals (1786)
Section III: Organisms
8. Schelling’s Uncanny Organism
9. “it […] lives by dying”: S. T. Coleridge’s Mechanical Life and Colonial Necropolitics
10. The Metaphysical Machinery of Mining in Novalis’s Works
Christina M. Weiler
Dyer-Witheford, Nick; Kjøsen, Atle Mikkola; Steinhoff, James. Inhuman Power: Artificial Intelligence and the Future of Capitalism. London: Pluto Press, 2019.
Engster, Frank; Moore, Phoebe. “The search for (artificial) intelligence, in capitalism,” Capital & Class, Volume 44, Issue 2, June 2020 (Special Issue: Machines and Measure), pp. 201-218. Contents.
Jones-Imhotep, Edward. “The ghost factories: histories of automata and artificial life,” History and Technology, volume 36, Issue 1, 2020, pp. 3-29.
Jordan, John. Robots. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2016.
Kakoudaki, Despina. Anatomy of a Robot: Literature, Cinema, and the Cultural Work of Artificial People. New Brunswick, NJ; London: Rutgers University Press, 2014.
Koetsier, Teun. The Ascent of GIM, the Global Intelligent Machine: A History of Production and Information Machines. Cham: Springer International Publishing, Springer, 2019. For Čapek, see chapter 12.2.
Kang, Minsoo. Sublime Dreams of Living Machines: The Automaton in the European Imagination. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2011.
Kinyon, Kamila. “The Phenomenology of Robots: Confrontations with Death in Karel Čapek’s R.U.R.,” Science Fiction Studies, #79 (Volume 26, Part 3), November 1999.
Liu, Lydia H. The Freudian Robot: Digital Media and the Future of the Unconscious. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010.
March-Russell, Paul. “Machines Like Us? Modernism and the Question of the Robot,” in AI Narratives: A History of Imaginative Thinking about Intelligent Machines, edited by Stephen Cave, Kanta Dihal, and Sarah Dillon (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2020), pp. 165-186.
On technophobia based on fears of mechanization of humans, especially in the wake of Čapek’s R.U.R. Joyce is mentioned only in passing. Three phases of literary responses are detailed: (1) Consciousness and the Technological Imaginary (Z0la, Albert Robida); (2) Proto-Modernist Representations of Mechanical Intelligence (Samuel Butler, H. G. Wells); (3) Modernism and Robot Consciousness (E. M. Forster, Raymond Roussel, Villiers de l’Isle Adam, Karel Čapek).
Paul, Jean [Johann Richter, 1763-1825]. Jean Paul: A Reader, edited, with an introductory essay and commentary, by Timothy J. Casey; translations by Erika Casey. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992.
Ramírez, J. Jesse. Marx vs. the Robots, Amerikastudien/American Studies, Volume 62, Issue 4, 2017, pp. 619-632.
Reilly, Kara. Automata and Mimesis on the Stage of Theatre History. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire; New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011.
Riskin, Jessica. The Restless Clock: A History of the Centuries-Long Argument Over What Makes Living Things Tick. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2016.
Riskin, Jessica. Frolicsome Engines: The Long Prehistory of Artificial Intelligence, The Public Domain Review, May 4, 2016.
Riskin, Jessica, ed. Genesis Redux: Essays in the History and Philosophy of Artificial Life. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007.
List of Contributors ix
List of Illustrations xiii
1 Introduction: The Sistine Gap / Jessica Riskin 1
2 The Imitation of Life in Ancient Greek Philosophy / Sylvia Berryman 35
3 The Devil as Automaton: Giovanni Fontana and the Meanings of a Fifteenth-Century Machine / Anthony Grafton 46
4 Infinite Gesture: Automata and the Emotions in Descartes and Shakespeare / Scott Maisano 63
5 Abstracting from the Soul: The Mechanics of Locomotion / Dennis Deschene 85
6 The Anatomy of Artificial Life: An Eighteenth-Century Perspective / Joan B. Landes 96
7 The Homunculus and the Mandrake: Art Aiding Nature versus Art Faking Nature / William R. Newman 119
8 Sex Ratio Theory, Ancient and Modern: An Eighteenth-Century Debate about Intelligent Design and the Development of Models in Evolutionary Biology / Elliott Sober 131
9 The Gender of Automata in Victorian Britain / M. Norton Wise 163
10 Techno-Humanism: Requiem for the Cyborg / Timothy Lenoir 196
11 Nanobots and Nanotubes: Two Alternative Biomimetic Paradigms of Nanotechnology / Bernadette Bensaude-Vincent 221
12 Creating Insight: Gestalt Theory and the Early Computer / David Bates 237
13 Perpetual Devotion: A Sixteenth-Century Machine That Prays / Elizabeth King 263
14 Motions and Passions: Music-Playing Women Automata and the Culture of Affect in Late Eighteenth-Century Germany / Adelheid Voskuhl 293
15 An Archaeology of Artificial Life, Underwater / Stefan Helmreich 321
16 Booting Up Baby / Evelyn Fox Keller 334
17 Body Language: Lessons from the Near-Human / Justine Cassell 346
Schäfer, Wolf. "Stranded at the Crossroads of Dehumanization: John Desmond Bernal and Max Horkheimer," in On Max Horkheimer: New Perspectives, edited by Seyla Benhabib, Wolfgang Bonß, and John McCole (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1993) pp. 153-183.
Soderstrom, Mark. "Speculating a Better Future," Jacobin, March 2016.
Strätz, Juliane. The Ordeal of Labor and the Birth of Robot Fiction, Amerikastudien/American Studies, Volume 62, Issue 4, 2017, pp. 633 - 648.
Tresch, John. The Romantic Machine: Utopian Science and Technology after Napoleon. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2012.
Voskuhl, Adelheid. Androids in the Enlightenment: Mechanics, Artisans, and Cultures of the Self. Chicago; London: The University of Chicago Press, 2013.
Human-Machine Boundaries in the Enlightenment and Beyond, Lecture at German Historical Institute, Washington, DC, Feb 27, 2020.
West-Knights, Imogen. Kings and Machines: Game of Thrones Star's Daring Transhuman Adventure, The Guardian, 23 September 2020.
Stage show adapted from a book, Mark OConnell tells us in his 2018 Wellcome prize-winning book To Be a Machine, an exploration of transhumanism.
Laity, Paul. To Be a Machine by Mark O'Connell review - solving the problem of death, The Guardian, 23 March 2017.
Wijeratne, Yudhanjaya. Future Tense: “The State Machine”; Slate, September 26, 2020.
“A new short story imagines a government run entirely by machines.”
Divya, S. B. “Under the Gaze of Big Mother,” Slate, September 26, 2020.
‘Yudhanjaya Wijeratne’s “The State Machine” shows the danger of trusting machines to be free of bias.’
Winterson, Jeanette. Frankissstein: A Love Story. New York: Grove Press, 2019.
Karl Marx on automatons, machinery, capital & labor
Ralph Dumain: Antaŭparolo al Karlo Markso: La tiel nomata Fragmento pri maŝinoj (elgermanigita de Vilhelmo Lutermano) [in Esperanto]
Maŝinaro kaj granda industrio (Ĉerpaĵoj ) de Karlo Markso, trad. V. Lutermano (in Esperanto)
The Ascent of GIM, the Global Intelligent Machine (Contents +) by Teun Koetsier
Peter Swirski & artificial intelligence: the last gasp of bourgeois reason by Ralph Dumain
Robots in Finnegans Wake?
Karel Čapek: Selected Bibliography & Web Links
James Joyce & Technology, Vitalism,
Robots, Artificial Intelligence, Cyberculture & Combinatorics:
A Bibliographic Pathway
Frigyes & Ferenc Karinthy in English
Leibniz & Ideology: Selected Bibliography
Ars Combinatoria Study Guide
Cybernetics & Artificial Intelligence: Ideology Critique
Big Data, Big Brother, & Algorithmic Tyranny: A Guide to Analysis & Fightback
Science Fiction & Utopia Research Resources: A Selective Work in Progress
Positivism vs Life Philosophy (Lebensphilosophie) Study Guide
Studies in a Dying Culture radio program / podcast series (5/10/10 - ) by R. Dumain: See programs:
11/18/17 Dialectic and Dystopia: A Century Before and After the Russian Revolution Through Literature (transcript)
05/07/16 Frigyes Karinthy: the Hungarian Swift & his musical robots
05/06/12 The Utopian Vision of Sándor Szathmári
05/06/14 Science Fiction, Utopia, and the End of Imagination (1)
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