LABOUR PROCESS IN THE FUTURE                                                     173

Table 3

Forecasts of Future Trends in Space Exploration
up to the Year 2030

Year                                                 Achievement

1978          Discovery of new laws governing relict thermal radiation,
                  sources of cosmic masers. Multi‑base launch vehicle for
                  putting spacecraft into orbit. Nuclear powered rockets with
                  solid active zone. A temporary base on the Moon with
                  crew of two staying for a month

1980          Development of a universally recognised theory of the origin
                  of the Earth and the solar system. An ionic rocket engine.
                  Fly‑by of Mars and Venus by piloted spacecraft

1983          Second astronomic revolution (the first began with the use of
                  the telescope by Galileo). Astronomy becomes totally based on
                  radio telescopes operating throughout the wave band. The
                  study  of Jupiter with the aid of space probes in centric
                  orbit around the planet. Possibility of generating electricity,
                  making drinking water and oxygen on the Moon

1985          Development of a universally recognised theory of internal
                  structure and processes in stars. Permanent base on the
                  Moon with a crew of 10. Launching space vehicles beyond
                  the solar system

1990          A local man‑made atmosphere on the Moon and other plan­
                  ets of the solar system. Research laboratories in deep space.
                  Man lands on Mars and returns to Earth. Equipment ma­
                  nufacturing facilities on the Moon. Megaworld engineering
                  available

1995          Samples of substances beyond the solar system. Automatic
                  probes land on all planets of the solar system. Use of
                  ballistic missiles as a means of public transport. Intensive
                  study of planets of the solar system

2000          Neutrino astronomy conies into its own. A global transport
                  system based on spacecraft

2005          Compilation of detailed maps of all the planets of the solar
                  system. Man lands on Jupiter's satellite. Equipment for
                  probing interstellar space




174                                                                                                V. KOSOLAPOV

Year                                                  Achievement

2010           Fly‑by of Pluto. Controlled gravitation. Landing on Jupiter
                   A laser station on the Moon to transmit energy to space-
                   craft. Theory on the origin of the proto‑planetary cloud and
                   the solar system

2020           A permanent inhabited station on Mars manned by a crew
                   of 10. Regular space voyages of piloted spacecraft from
                   one planet to another. Use of life support systems of the
                   type used in spacecraft on Earth. Population settlement of
                   planets. A rocket with a thermonuclear propulsion system.
                   Discovery of extra‑ terrestrial civilisations

2030           Permanent research stations on planets nearest to Earth.
                   Study of spacecraft used by extra‑terrestrials



SOURCE: Kosolapov, V. Mankind and the Year 2000, translated by Y. Sviridov (Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1976), pp. 173-174. (Russian: 1973) From Chapter 5, Labour Process in the Future, pp. 148-180.


Science Fiction & Utopia Research Resources: A Selective Work in Progress

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