The Young Hegelians:
Selected Bibliography

Compiled by Ralph Dumain

The Young Hegelians

Brazill, William J. The Young Hegelians. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1970. (Yale Historical Publications. Miscellany; 91.)

Breckman, Warren. Marx, the Young Hegelians, and the Origins of Radical Social Theory: Dethroning the Self. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

"Feuerbach, Marx and the Left Hegelians", special issue of The Philosophical Forum, Vol. VIII, nos. 2-4, 1978, edited by Marx W. Wartofsky & Hans-Martin Sass. (See table of contents below.)

Hellman, Robert J. Berlin—The Red Room and White Beer: The 'Free' Hegelian Radicals in the 1840s. Washington, D.C.: Three Continents Press, 1990. (Time/Space-Artists and Scholars; vol. 2)

Hook, Sidney. From Hegel to Marx: Studies in the Intellectual Development of Karl Marx. With new introduction. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press, 1962. (Originally published 1936)

Kouvelakis, Stathis. Philosophy and Revolution: From Kant to Marx. G. M. Goshgarian (translator), Fredric Jameson (preface). Verso, 2003.

Lowith, Karl; translated by David E. Green. From Hegel to Nietzsche: The Revolution in Ninteeth-Century Thought. Garden City, NY: Anchor Books, 1967. (Original German edition, 1941)

Mah, Harold. The End of Philosophy, the Origin of "Ideology": Karl Marx and the Crisis of the Young Hegelians. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987.

Macintosh, Robert. Hegel and Hegelianism. Bristol: Thoemmes, 1990.

McLellan, David. The Young Hegelians and Karl Marx. New York: F. A. Praeger, 1969.

Stirner, Feurbach, Marx and the Young Hegelians (chapter)

Moggach, Douglas, ed. The New Hegelians: Politics and Philosophy in the Hegelian School. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

The Young Hegelians: An Anthology. Edited by Lawrence S. Stepelevich. Atlantic Highlands, N.J.: Humanities Press, 1997. [Originally published: Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1983. (Texts in German philosophy)] (See table of contents below.)

Thomas, Paul. Karl Marx and the Anarchists. London; Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1980.

Toews, John Edward. Hegelianism: The Path Toward Dialectical Humanism, 1805-1841. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985. (Originally published 1980.)

Toews, John. "Transformations of Hegelianism, 1805-1846", in: The Cambridge Companion to Hegel, edited by Frederick C. Beiser (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), pp. 378-413.

Tomasoni, Francesco. Modernity and the Final Aim of History: The Debate over Judaism from Kant to the Young Hegelians. Dordrecht: Kluwer, 2010. ((International Archives of the History of Ideas / Archives internationales d'histoire des idées; no. 187) Springer publisher's description.

Bruno Bauer (1809-1882)

Bauer, Bruno; English translation by Frank E. Schacht. Christ and the Caesars: The Origin of Christianity from Romanized Greek Culture. Charleston, SC: A. Davidonis, 1998.

Bauer, Bruno; edited by Paul Trejo. An English edition of Bruno Bauer's 1843 Christianity Exposed: a recollection of the eighteenth century and a contribution to the crisis of the nineteenth century. Lewiston, N.Y.: E. Mellen Press, May 2002. (Studies in German Thought and History; v. 23)

Bauer, Bruno; translated by Lawrence Stepelevich. The Trumpet of the Last Judgement against Hegel the Atheist and Antichrist: An Ultimatum. Lewiston, N.Y.: E. Mellen Press, 1989. (Studies in German Thought and History; v. 5.) (Original German publication, 1841)

Leopold, David. "The Hegelian Antisemitism of Bruno Bauer," History of European Ideas, vol. 25, no. 4, 1999.

Moggach, Douglas. "Bruno Bauer", in Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2002.

Moggach, Douglas. The Philosophy and Politics of Bruno Bauer. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Feb. 2003.

Rosen, Zvi. Bruno Bauer and Karl Marx: The Influence of Bruno Bauer on Marx's Thought. The Hague: Nijhoff, 1977. (Studies in Social History; 2)

Edgar Bauer (1820-1886)

Bauer, Edgar. Critique’s Quarrel with Church and State, foreword by Widukind De Ridder, translated by Eric v.d. Luft. North Syracuse, NY: Gegensatz Press, 2019.

See also The Young Hegelians: An Anthology and The Philosophical Forum, Volume VIII, Nos. 2-3-4, below.

August Cieszkowski (1814-1894)

Liebich, André. Between Ideology and Utopia: The Politics and Philosophy of August Cieszkowski. Dordrecht: D. Reidel, 1978. (Sovietica; v. 39)

Selected Writings of August Cieszkowski. Ed. & trans. with introductory essay by André Liebich. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979. (Cambridge Studies in the History and Theory of Politics)

Max Stirner (1806-1856)

Balaban, Oded. Subject and Consciousness: A Philosophical Inquiry into Self-Consciousness. Savage, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1990. See Chapter 6: The Form of Consciousness in Karl Marx, pp. 101-27.

Carroll, John. Break-out from the Crystal Palace: The Anarcho-Psychological Critique; Stirner, Nietzsche, Dostoevsky. London, Boston: Routledge & K. Paul, 1974.

Clark, John P. Max Stirner's Egoism. London: Freedom Press, 1976.

De Ridder, Widukind. Max Stirner, "Hegel and the Young Hegelians: A Reassessment," History of European Ideas, vol. 34, no. 3, 2008, pp. 285-297. (doi:10.1016/j.histeuroideas.2007.11.001)

Dematteis, Philip Breed. Individuality and the Social Organism: The Controversy between Max Stirner and Karl Marx. New York: Revisionist Press, 1976. (Men and Movements in the History and Philosophy of Anarchism)

Green, Alexander. "Stirner and Marx," non serviam #23, April 2006. See also Editor's Word.

Mcleish, Alastair. "Against Max Stirner: A Defence of Marxism's Humanist Standpoint," non serviam #23, April 2006. See also Editor's Word by Svein Olav Nyberg. Originally published in Studies in Marxism, no. 10 (2004), pp 85-100.

Moiso, Davide. Ego and Existance: Existentialism and the Absolute Individual in the Philosophy of Max Stirner and Julius Evola.

Moore, John. "Lived Poetry: Stirner, Anarchy, Subjectivity and the Art of Living," in Changing Anarchism: Anarchist Theory and Practice in a Global Age, edited by Jonathan Purkis and James Bowen (Manchester; New York: Manchester University Press, 2004), pp. 55-72.

Paterson, R. W. K. The Nihilistic Egoist Max Stirner. Aldershot: Gregg Revivals, 1993. (Originally published: Oxford: Oxford University Press for the University of Hull, 1971.)

Schiereck, Larry Alan. Max Stirner's Egoism and Nihilism. Master's Thesis, San Diego State University, Summer 1981, rev. 1996.

Stepelevich, Lawrence. "Hegel and Stirner: Thesis and Antithesis," Idealistic Studies, 6 (Sept. 1976), pp. 263-278.

Stepelevich, Lawrence. "Max Stirner and Ludwig Feuerbach," Journal of the History of Ideas, 39 (July-Sept. 1978), pp. 451-463.

Stepelevich, Lawrence. "Max Stirner as Hegelian," Journal of the History of Ideas, 46 (Oct.-Dec. 1985), pp. 597-614.

Stepelevich, Lawrence. "The Revival of Max Stirner," Journal of the History of Ideas, 35 (April-June 1974), pp. 323-328.

Stirner, Max; translated by Steven T. Byington; introduction by J.L. Walker. The Ego and His Own. New York; Benjamin R. Tucker, 1907. (The translation reprinted several times by various publishers with different editors.) (Originally published in German, 1844)

Stirner, Max; translated by Robert H. Beebe; ed. by James J. Martin. The False Principle of Our Education: Or, Humanism and Realism. Colorado Springs: Ralph Myles Publisher, Inc., 1967.

Walther, Helmut. "Nietzsche and Stirner: Comments on a Text by Bernd A. Laska (2002)."

Max Stirner - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

See also the Max Stirner sections of The Union of Egoists (with Criticism), the old Non Serviam & the old Egoist Archive sites (with links to the other Young Hegelians); Max Stirner web site; LSR project; Max-Stirner-Archiv Leipzig. Texts by and about Stirner can be found in The Anarchist Library.

Moses Hess (1812-1875)

Avineri, Shlomo. Moses Hess: Prophet of Communism and Zionism. New York: New York University Press, 1985. (Modern Jewish Masters series; no. 1)

Hess, Moses; translated, with introduction and notes by Meyer Waxman; introduction to the Bison Book edition by Melvin I. Urofsky. The Revival of Israel: Rome and Jerusalem, the Last Nationalist Question. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1995. (Previously published: 1943.)

Koltun-Fromm, Ken. Moses Hess and Modern Jewish Identity. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2001.

Silberner, Edmund. The Works Of Moses Hess; An Inventory of His Signed and Anonymous Publications, Manuscripts, and Correspondence. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1958.

Silberner, Edmond. Moses Hess, An Annotated Bibliography. New York, B. Franklin, 1951. (Burt Franklin Bibliographical Series; no. 4)

Weiss, John. Moses Hess, Utopian Socialist. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1960. (Wayne State University Studies; no.8)

See also the Moses Hess Archive.

Karl Schmidt (1819-1864)

Schmidt, Karl. The Individual, translated by Eric v.d. Luft. North Syracuse, NY: Gegensatz Press, 2008.

Schmidt, Karl. Love Letters Without Love, translated by Eric v.d. Luft. North Syracuse, NY: Gegensatz Press, 2010.

Strauss, David Friedrich (1808-1874)

Strauss, David Friedrich; translated, edited, and with an introduction by Marilyn Chapin Massey. In Defense of My Life of Jesus against the Hegelians. Hamden, Conn.: Archon Books, 1983.

Strauss, David Friedrich. The Life of Jesus Critically Examined; edited with an introduction by Peter C. Hodgson; translated from the 4th German edition by George Eliot. Ramsey, NJ: Sigler Press, 1994. (Original German publication, 1835)

The Life of Jesus Critically Examined, translated from the 4th German Edition by Marian Evans. New York: Calvin Blanchard, 1860.

Strauss, David Friedrich; translated by Mathilde Blind; with an introduction & notes by G.A. Wells. The Old Faith & the New. Amherst, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, 1997. (Translation originally published 1873.)

Strauss, David Friedrich; translated, edited, and with an introduction by Leander E. Keck. The Christ of Faith and the Jesus of History: A Critique of Schleiermacher's Life of Jesus Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1977. (Lives of Jesus series)

Heinrich Heine (1797-1856)

Heine, Heinrich; translated by John Snodgrass; foreword by Dennis J. Schmidt. Religion and Philosophy in Germany. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1986.

Heine, Heinrich; edited by Jost Hermand & Robert C. Holub. The Romantic School and Other Essays. New York: Continuum, 1985. (The German Library; v. 33)

Robertson, Ritchie. Heine. New York: Grove Press, 1988. (Jewish Thinkers)

Ludwig Feuerbach (1804-1872)

See my Ludwig Feuerbach: A Bibliography.

Note: This and my separate Feuerbach bibliography aim for comprehensivity viz. monographs in English. Works by Marx and Engels are de-emphasized, as are works concerning the development of their thought. Strauss and Heine are included as precursors. Bakunin is usually not counted among this cohort, but his philosophical views bear a relationship to theirs, especially to Feuerbach.

Some of the essays listed below and others relating to Max Stirner and other Young Hegelians can be found at The Union of Egoists (with Criticism), the old Non Serviam & the old Egoist Archive.

The Young Hegelians: An Anthology
Edited by Lawrence S. Stepelevich


Preface page ix
Introduction 1

I David Friedrich Strauss 17
The Life of Jesus (1835) 21

II August von Cieszkowski 53
Prolegomena to Historiosophie (1838) 57

III Ludwig Feuerbach 91
Towards a Critique of Hegelian Philosophy (1839) 95
The Essence of Christianity (1841) 129

Provisional Theses for the Reformation of Philosophy
(1843) 156

IV Bruno Bauer 173
The Trumpet of the Last Judgement over Hegel (1841) 177
The Jewish Problem
(1843) 187
The Genus and the Crowd (1844) 198

V Arnold Ruge 207
Hegel�s �Philosophy of Right� and the Politics of our
(1842) 211
A Self-critique of Liberalism (1843) 237

VI Edgar Bauer 261
The Struggle of Critique with Church and State (1844) 265

VII Friedrich Engels 275
Outlines of a Critique of Political Economy (1843) 278

VIII Karl Marx 303
Letter to Ruge (1843) 307

A Contribution to the Critique of Hegel�s �Philosophy of
(1843) 310

IX Max Stirner 323
Art and Religion (1842) 327
The Ego and His Own (1844) 335

 X Moses Hess 355
The Recent Philosophers (1845) 359

XI Karl Schmidt 377
The Realm of the Understanding and the Individual
(1846) 381 

A bibliography of general studies: 1930 to the present 411
[Note: An earlier version of this bibliography (1976) can be found online.]

The Philosophical Forum: A Quarterly

a philosophical quarterly published with the cooperation of the
Department of Philosophy of Boston University

VOLUME VIII, Nos. 2-3-4 

Special Guest Co-Editor for
this issue:


Editors� Note 1

The First Hegelians: An Introduction, Lawrence S. Stepelevich 6

My Starting Point in Philosophy. (Outline for an Introduction to
  the Complete Works, 1845/46.),
Ludwig Feuerbach 24

Loyalty Oaths, Ludwig Feuerbach 28

The Contradictory Nature of Feuerbachian Humanism, Fredrick
  M.Gordon 31

Letter to Bertha, Ludwig Feuerbach 48

The Debate Between Feuerbach and Stirner: An Introduction,
  Fredrick M. Gordon 52

Stirner's Critics, Max Stirner 66

"The Essence of Christianity in Relation to The Ego and Its Own";
   Ludwig Feuerbach 81

Bruno Bauer's Critical Theory, Hans-Martin Sass 92

On Strategy, October 1848, Bruno Bauer 121

The Genus and the Crowd, Bruno Bauer 126

The Capacity of Present Day Jews and Christians to Become Free,
Bruno Bauer 135

The Ugly Marx: Analysis of an "Outspoken Anti-Semite", Helmut
Hirsch 150

Letter out of Custody at Fortress Magdeburg, 1847, Edgar Bauer 163

On Stirner and Szeliga, 1882, Edgar Bauer 167

Concerning Marx�s Epistemological Break, Henri Arvon 173

New Grounds for Revolution, The Early Marx in a Lukácsian
Perspective, Andrew Feenberg 186

 Two Appendices to a Doctoral Dissertation: Some Light on the
Origin of Karl Marx's Dissociation from Bruno Bauer and the
Young Hegelians, L. Baronovitch 219

 The Concept of Revolution in Marx�s Dissertation (The Non-
Hegelian Origin of Karl Marx�s Early Concept of Dialectics),
Hans-Martin Sass 241

Alienation as Heteronomy, Andrew Levine 256

Activism and Scientism in the Interpretation of Karl Marx�s First
and Third Theses on Feuerbach, Dan Goldstick and Frank
Cunningham 269

Marx�s Theses on Feuerbach: From Real Humanism to Real
L. Baronovitch 288

The Attitude of Hess to French Socialism and His Plans for
Publishing a Series of Socialist Writings with Marx and Engels,
Zvi Rosen 310

 Bibliography of English Translations of the Works of the Left
Hegelians 323


copyright © 1978 by The Philosophical Forum Inc.

[Note: this issue can be ordered from The Philosophical Forum]

(10/25/2001; rev. 5/12/2002, 8/21/2002, 9/8/2002, 3/19/2003, 8/24/2004, 8/13/06, 1/8/08, 6/10/08, 9/10/08. 9/25/08, 3/3/09, 3/29/10, 7/5/10, 9/23/10, 1/7/11, 5/9/11, 2/4/12, 11/29/14, 3/30/15, 3/6/19, 11/17/19, 11/30/19, 2/7/21)

Bruno Bauer on Christianity, Alienation, and the Dialectics of Religious Consciousness

Letter to Ludwig Feuerbach from Ottilie Assing about Frederick Douglass

Home of Frederick Douglass, Cedar Hill, Washington, DC: Library:
Busts of David Friedrich Strauss & Ludwig Feuerbach

Sigmund Freud on Franz Brentano (& other philosophers)

Friedrich Ludwig Lindner, The Absolute Boot
reviewed by R. Dumain

Ludwig Feuerbach: A Bibliography

Heinrich Heine: Selected Bibliography

Heinrich Heine on Leibniz & Spinoza

Heinrich Heine on Spinoza and Our Lenses

Heinrich Heine on German Romantic Orientalism

From Hegel to Marcuse by Lucio Colletti

M. Bakunin on Materialism and Idealism

"God or Labor: The Two Camps" by M. Bakunin

El Dio kaj la Ŝtato de Bakunin, Esperanto translation by R. Dumain

Natural Order and the 'Divine Legislator' (according to Bakunin) by Paul McLaughlin

Negation: Bakunin and Bauer by Paul McLaughlin

Bakunin and Feuerbach: On Religion, Philosophy, & Naturalism by Paul McLaughlin

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