A Generation of Materialism, 1871-1900
Carlton J. H. Hayes
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter I POWER POLITICS IN THE WAKE OF NATIONAL WARS 1
I Aftermath of the Franco‑Prussian War; II Heritage of Material Progress and the Competitive Spirit; III Heritage of Darwinism and "the Struggle for Existence"; IV The European Powers; V The Armed Peace; VI The Russo-Turkish War and the Congress of Berlin; VII Alliances à trois: Peace by Might.
Chapter II THE FRUITION OF LIBERALISM 46
I Liberalism in the 1870's: Ecumenical and Sectarian; II The Vogue of Constitutional Parliamentary Government; III Social Classes and Political Parties; IV Temporary Predominance of Liberal Parties; V Sectarian Liberalism in Action in the '70's.
Chapter III THE RAPID MECHANIZING OF WORK AND THOUGHT 88
I Perfecting of Mechanical Transport; II Growth of Machine Industry and the Crisis in Agriculture; III Growth of Material Wealth and Corporate Business; IV Growth of Urban Population and the Great Migrations; V Medical Progress and Public Health; VI Mechanistic Natural Science; VII Deterministic Biological Science; VIII Physiological Psychology; IX Positivism and the Social Sciences.
Chapter IV RELIGION AND THE ARTS DURING THE GENERATION OF MATERIALISM 123
I "Warfare between Science and Theology"; II The Drift away from Traditional Religion and the Rise of Modernism; III Pontificate of Leo XIII; IV Christian Missionary Enterprise; V Sociological Realism in Art; VI Psychological Realism; VII Impressionism and Eclecticism.
Chapter V EMERGENCE OF THE MASSES
I Trade‑Unionism; II The Co‑operative Movement; III Popular Education; IV Popular journalism; V Marxian Socialism; VI Beginnings of Feminism. 165
Chapter VI RESURGENCE OF ECONOMIC NATIONALISM AND NATIONAL IMPERIALISM
I Reaction against Doctrinaire Liberalism in the 1880's; II Return to Tariff Protection; III Socializing Legislation; IV Bases of a New National Imperialism; V Res Gestae of the New Imperialism; VI The New Navalism. 196
Chapter VII SEED‑TIME OF TOTALITARIAN NATIONALISM
I Planters and Cultivators; II Favorable Soil and Climate; III Racialism and Anti‑Semitism; IV The Nationalizing of Minorities; V The "Pan" Movements; VI Agitation among Submerged Nationalities. 242
Chapter VIII THE EUROPEAN STATE SYSTEM IN THE CENTURY'S LAST DECADE
I Dropping the Pilot; II Reformation of Alliances; III Stability and Flux in the State System; IV Impact of Japan and the United States on Europe; V The Apotheosis of the British Empireand England's Isolation; VI The International Peace Conference of 1899. 286
Chapter IX THE CLIMAX OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT
I The Cult of Progress; II Great Expectations; III The Lurking Nemesis. 328
BIBLIOGRAPHICAL ESSAY 341
EUROPE IN 1871 xiv
EUROPE IN 1900 xvi
SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE IN 1877‑1878 35
THE RAILWAY NETWORK OF EUROPE IN 1880 89
EUROPEAN EMPIRES IN AFRICA IN 1890 235
THE NATIONALITIES OF EAST CENTRAL EUROPE 266
IMPERIALISM IN THE FAR EAST IN 1900 307
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
The illustrations, grouped in a separate section, will be found following page 178.
1. Emperor William I's Triumphal Return to Berlin, 1871
2. Queen Victoria after her Diamond jubilee, 1897
3. Parliament Building, Berlin
4. Making Steel by the Bessemer Process, 1875
5. Making Machine Tools in the 1870's
6. Supplying Power for First Electric Street Railway
7. Tramcars on First Electric Street Railway
8. H. L. F. von Helmholtz
9. Werner von Siemens
10. Sir Charles Parsons
11. Wilhelm von Röntgen
12. Prophecy of Mechanized War, 1882
13. Building the Trans‑Siberian Railway, 1893
14. Pasteur in his Laboratory
15. Administering Anaesthesia in a Paris Hospital
16. Popular Scientific Lecturing in the 1870's
17. Thomas Henry Huxley
18. Ernst Haeckel
19. August Weismann
20. Wilhelm Wundt
21. "Pithecanthropus Erectus"
22. Rodin's The Thinker
23. Herbert Spencer
24. Missionary "White Fathers" of Cardinal Lavigerie in North Africa
25. Friedrich Nietzsche
26. Richard Strauss
27. Giacomo Puccini
28. Peter Tschaikovsky
29. Claude Debussy
30. Émile Zola
31. Leo Tolstoy
32. Anatole France
33. Henrik Ibsen
34. Meunier's The Miners
35. Self‑Portrait by Manet in Impressionist Style
36. Self‑Portrait by Cezanne in Post‑Impressionist Style
37. Van Gogh's Night Cafe in Arles
38. Gauguin's Three Tahitians
39. Seurat's Side Show
40. Toulouse‑Lautrec's At the Moulin Rouge
41. London Society in the '90's
42. Preparations for a Strike
43. August Bebel
44. Jules Guesde
45. Prince Peter Kropotkin
46. The Socialist Bogey
47. Suffrage Demonstration at Brussels, May Day, 1886
48. Departure of Peasant Emigrants from a German Village
49. Women Clerks in the Paris Telegraph Office
50. Cecil Rhodes
51. Carl Peters
53. Leopold II
54. Kipling and the "Lesser Breeds"
55. A German View of British Imperialism
56. Pope Leo XIII
57. Emperor Francis Joseph
58. Tsar Alexander III
59. Joseph Chamberlain
60. An English View of William II
61. Europe Confronting the "Yellow Peril"
62. Bismarck in Retirement
(Revised as of January, 1963)
[M. E. M. Walker, Pioneers of] Public Health (London, 1930). In addition, there are several noteworthy biographies of leading contributors to medical science: R. J. Dubos, Louis Pasteur, Free Lance of Science (London, 1951; W. W. Cheyne, Lister and His Achievement (London, 1925); C. Posner, Rudolf Virchow, 2nd ed. (Vienna, 1921); Karl Wezel, Robert Koch (Leipzig, 1912).
The chief manual for the general history of physical and biological science is W. T. Sedgwick and H. W. Tyler, A Short History of Science, rev. ed. (New York, 1939), and the most illuminating account is Sir William C. Dampier, A History of Science in its Relations with Philosophy and Religion, 4th ed. (Cambridge, 1948). Specifically on physical science, the standard text is F. Cajori, History of Physics, rev. ed. (New York, 1929), and on chemistry, Eduard Farber, The Evolution of Chemistry (New York, 1955) and F. S. Taylor, A History of Industrial Chemistry (London, 1957).
On biology and Darwinian evolution: Charles J. Singer, A History of Biology, rev. ed. (New York, 1950); G. G. Simpson, The Meaning of Evolution (New Haven, 1949); Geoffrey West, Charles Darwin, a Portrait (New Haven, 1938), one of the best of innumerable lives of the evolutionist; Sir P. C. Mitchell, Thomas Henry Huxley (New York, 1900); W. B61sche, Ernst Haeckel, Eng. trans. (London, 1906); August Weismann, The Evolution Theory, Eng. trans. (London, 1904); Karl Pearson, National Life from the Standpoint of Science (London, 1901), which means, in this case, from the standpoint of racial and social Darwinism; Hugo Iltis, Life of Mendel (New York, 1932).
On physiological psychology: E. G. Boring, A History of Experimental Psychology, 2nd ed. (New York, 1950); H. G. Kurella, Cesare Lombroso, a Modern Man of Science, Eng. trans. (London, 1911).
The materialism and mechanism of the era are explicit or implicit, in a rather eulogistic manner, in the well‑written classic, J. T. Merz, A History of European Thought in the Nineteenth Century, 2nd ed., 4 vols. (Edinburgh, 1912‑1928). More questioning works on the subject are F. A. Lange, The History of Materialism and Criticism of its Present Importance, Eng. Trans., 3rd ed. (New York, 1950); Karl Löwith, Von Hegel bis Nietzsche (Zurich, 1941); Ernst Mach, Die Mechanik in ihrer Entwicklung historisch‑kritisch dargestellt, 9th ed. (Leipzig, 1933), with abridged Eng. trans. as The Science of Mechanics by T. J. McCormack, 5th ed. (La Salle, 1942); and with particular brilliance, Jacques Barzun, Darwin, Marx, Wagner, the Fatal Legacy of "Progress," 2nd ed. (New York, 1954).
Strangely enough, little specific study has been devoted to the history of positivism and its manifold influence in our era. There is a monograph on English positivism as a religion: J. E. McGee, A Crusade for Humanity, the History of Organized Positivism in England (London, 1931); and there is a bibliography in Italian by F. Valsecchi (Milan, 1957). Positivist influence on the social sciences can be gathered from such notable works as Charles Gide and Charles Rist, History of Economic Doctrines, Eng. trans., 2nd ed. (Boston, 1948); G. P. Gooch, History and Historians in the Nineteenth Century, new ed. (New York, 1952); Pieter Geyl, From Ranke to Toynbee (Northampton, Mass., 1952); Antoine Guilland, Modern Germany and Her Historians, Eng. trans. (London, 1915); Rudolph Metz, A Hundred Years of British Philosophy, Eng. trans. (Cambridge, 1938); Crane Brinton, Ideas and Men: the Story of Western Thought (New York, 1950).
The principal reference books on religion are The Catholic Encyclopedia, ed. by C. G. Herbermann and others, 15 vols. (New York, 1907‑1912), now being drastically revised and supplemented; Realencyklopädie für protestanische Theologie und Kirche, ed. by J. K. Herzog and Albert Hauck, 3rd ed., 24 vols. (Leipzig, 1896‑1913); Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics, ed. by James Hastings and others, 13 vols. (Edinburgh, 1908‑1927); V. T. A. Ferm, A Protestant Dictionary (New York, 1951); Encyclopedia Judaica, 10 vols. through letter L (Berlin, 1928‑1934); H. A. R. Gibb and J. H. Kramers, Shorter Encyclopedia of Islam (Ithaca, 1957); Die Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart, ed. by H. Gunkel and L. Zscharnack, 2nd ed., 6 vols. (Leipzig, 1927‑1932); Christopher Dawson, Religion and Culture (London, 1947).
K. S. Latourette, Christianity in a Revolutionary Age, a History of Christianity in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries, of which three vols. of the total five are here pertinent, The 19th Century in Europe: Background and the Roman Catholic Phase (New York, 1958), The Protestant and Eastern Churches (1959), The 19th Century outside Europe, 1815‑1914 (1961), a notably comprehensive work by a distinguished Protestant scholar; Fernand Mourret, History of the Catholic Church, Eng. trans. by Newton Thompson, vol. V (St. Louis, 1955), a standard Catholic work; J. H. Nichols, History of Christianity, 1650‑1950: Secularization of the West (New York, 1956), part III, 1870‑1914, a brief Protestant survey; Philip Hughes, A Popular History of the Catholic Church, 3rd rev. ed. (London, 1947), a brief Catholic survey.
SOURCE: Hayes, Carlton J. H. A Generation of Materialism, 1871-1900. New York: Harper & Row, 1963, orig.1941. xii, 390 pp.,  pp. of leaves: ill., maps, ports. (Series: Rise of Modern Europe; Harper torchbooks; TB 3039)
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